for example, the âinnovationâ known as Gas Station
TVâthat is, the televisions embedded in gasoline pumps
that blast advertising and other pseudo-programming
at the captive pumper. There is no escape: as the CEO
of Gas Station TV puts it, âWe like to say youâre tied
to that screen with an 8-foot rubber hose for about
five minutes.â It is an invention that singlehandedly
may have created a new case for the electric car.
Attention theft happens anywhere you find your time
and attention taken without consent. The most egregious
examples are found where, like at the gas station,
we are captive audiences. In that genre are things
like the new, targeted advertising screens found in
hospital waiting rooms (broadcasting things like âThe
Newborn Channelâ for expecting parents); the airlines
that play full-volume advertising from a screen right
in front of your face; the advertising-screens in office
elevators; or that universally unloved invention known
as âTaxi TV.â
What to do about ad screens that are imposed on us in these captive scenarios? Wu suggests towns and cities have managed this problem before:
In the 1940s cities banned noisy advertising trucks bearing loudspeakers; the case against advertising screens and sound-trucks is basically the same. It is a small thing cities and towns can do to make our age of bombardment a bit more bearable.
At MIT Technology Review, Will Knight writes about the unknowable logic of our most sophisticated algorithms. We are creating machines that we don’t fully understand. Deep Patient is one example, a system that analyzes hundreds of thousands of medical records looking for patterns:
Deep Patient is a bit puzzling. It appears to anticipate the onset of psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia surprisingly well. But since schizophrenia is notoriously difficult for physicians to predict, [project leader Joel] Dudley wondered how this was possible. He still doesn’t know. The new tool offers no clue as to how it does this. If something like Deep Patient is actually going to help doctors, it will ideally give them the rationale for its prediction, to reassure them that it is accurate and to justify, say, a change in the drugs someone is being prescribed. “We can build these models,” Dudley says ruefully, “but we don’t know how they work.”
As deep learning begins to drive decisions in some of the most intimate and impactful aspects of life and culture—policing, medicine, banking, military defense, even how our cars drive—what do we need to know about how they think?
As the technology advances, we might soon cross some
threshold beyond which using AI requires a leap of
faith. Sure, we humans can’t always truly explain our
thought processes either—but we find ways to intuitively
trust and gauge people. Will that also be possible
with machines that think and make decisions differently
from the way a human would? We’ve never before built
machines that operate in ways their creators don’t
understand. How well can we expect to communicate—and
get along with—intelligent machines that could be unpredictable
This is especially important when the machines come up with bad answers. How do we understand where they went wrong? Or to know how to help them learn from the mistake? Knight offers a few examples of how researchers are experimenting with this, and many come down to new ways of visualizing and presenting the logic flow.
This resonates strongly with a key belief I have: the design of data-driven interfaces has to get just as much attention as the underlying data science itself—perhaps even more. If we’re going to build systems smart enough to know when they’re not smart enough, we need to be especially clever about how those systems signal the confidence of their answers and how they arrived at them. That’s the stuff of truly useful human-machine partnerships, and it’s a design problem I find myself working on more and more these days.
One hitch: we humans aren’t always so great at explaining our thinking or biases, either. What makes us think that we can train machines to do it any better?
Just as many aspects of human behavior are impossible to explain in detail, perhaps it won’t be possible for AI to explain everything it does. “Even if somebody can give you a reasonable-sounding explanation [for his or her actions], it probably is incomplete, and the same could very well be true for AI,” says Clune, of the University of Wyoming. “It might just be part of the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable.”
Brad suggests that development teams then build implementation-specific versions of the components that match the recommended rendered output. So you might have a React layer, an Angular layer, and so on. But those implementation details are all carefully segregated from the recommended markup.
The design system itself doesn’t care how you build it as long as the end result comes out the right way. Of course, developers do care how it’s built, and one promise of design systems is to deliver efficiencies there. So organizations should make it a goal for teams to share those platform-specific implementations, Brad writes:
This architecture provides a clear path for getting the tech-agnostic, canonical design system into real working software that uses specific technologies. Because it doesn’t bet the farm on any one technology, the system is able to adapt to inevitable changes to tools, technologies, and trends (hence the placeholder for the “new hotness”). Moreover, product teams that share a tech stack can share efforts in maintaining the tech-specific version of the design system.
Overall, our results showed that, while real-world
social networks were positively associated with overall
well-being, the use of Facebook was negatively associated
with overall well-being. These results were particularly
strong for mental health; most measures of Facebook
use in one year predicted a decrease in mental health
in a later year. We found consistently that both liking
others’ content and clicking links significantly predicted
a subsequent reduction in self-reported physical health,
mental health, and life satisfaction.
Our models included measures of real-world networks
and adjusted for baseline Facebook use. When we accounted
for a person’s level of initial well-being, initial
real-world networks, and initial level of Facebook
use, increased use of Facebook was still associated
with a likelihood of diminished future well-being.
This provides some evidence that the association between
Facebook use and compromised well-being is a dynamic
WPO Stats is a super-useful collection of stats from Tammy Everts and Tim Kadlec to demonstrate the business value of faster websites. If you need support for making the business case for your performance project, here’s your go-to library.
BBC has seen that they lose an additional 10% of users
for every additional second it takes for their site
to load. [source]
AliExpress reduced load time by 36% and saw a 10.5%
increase in orders and a 27% increase in conversion
for new customers. [source]
For every 100ms decrease in homepage load speed, Mobify’s
customer base saw a 1.11% lift in session based conversion,
amounting to an average annual revenue increase of
I missed this a few weeks back. At Search Engine Land, Danny Sullivan reported that Google is empowering its 10,000 human reviewers to start flagging offensive content, an effort to get a handle on hate speech in search results. The gambit: with a little human help from these “quality raters,” the algorithm can learn to identify what I call hostile information zones.
The results that quality raters flag is used as âtraining
dataâ for Googleâs human coders who write search algorithms,
as well as for its machine learning systems. Basically,
content of this nature is used to help Google figure
out how to automatically identify upsetting or offensive
content in general.â¦
Google told Search Engine Land that has already been testing these new guidelines with a subset of its quality raters and used that data as part of a ranking change back in December. That was aimed at reducing offensive content that was appearing for searches such as âdid the Holocaust happen.â
The results for that particular search have certainly improved. In part, the ranking change helped. In part, all the new content that appeared in response to outrage over those search results had an impact.
âWe will see how some of this works out. Iâll be honest. Weâre learning as we go,â [Google engineer Paul Haahr] said.
Federated Learning allows for smarter models, lower
latency, and less power consumption, all while ensuring
privacy. And this approach has another immediate benefit:
in addition to providing an update to the shared model,
the improved model on your phone can also be used immediately,
powering experiences personalized by the way you use
We’re currently testing Federated Learning in Gboard
on Android, the Google Keyboard. When Gboard shows
a suggested query, your phone locally stores information
about the current context and whether you clicked the
suggestion. Federated Learning processes that history
on-device to suggest improvements to the next iteration
of Gboard’s query suggestion model.
Old way: beam everything you do on your Google keyboard (!!) back to the mothership. New way: keep it all local, and beam back only an encrypted summary of relevant learnings. “Your device downloads the current model, improves it by learning from data on your phone, and then summarizes the changes as a small focused update.” To do this, Google has smartphones running a minature version of TensorFlow, the open-source software library for machine learning .
One knock against predictive interfaces is how much you have to give up about yourself to get the benefits. If this new model works as promised, new systems may be just as helpful, without the central service absorbing your nitty-gritty details to learn how.
But there are a few problems with pattern libraries.
Yes, they allow you to keep all of the smallest elements
consistent. But they don’t have an opinion about how
they should be put together. They don’t know anything
about your product or the concepts behind it.
To return to our Lego analogy, simply having a limited
pattern library of bricks to choose from doesn’t preclude
me from building some really crazy shit.
Now think about those branded Lego kits you can buy.
Each piece is much more opinionated. It knows what
it’s going to get used for. There are still generic
pieces involved, but when you put them together in
a certain way they form something specific, like the
leg of an AT-AT Walker. This is a design system.
I love it. Design systems are more than a kit of parts. The best design systems have a strong point of view—a gravitational force that coerces disparate components into patterns and ultimately into a coherent whole. The design system brings order to the pattern library and what would otherwise appear to be a chaotic jumble of components.
Another metaphor: if components are words, then patterns are sentences, and the design system is the full story.
If this nested arrangement echoes Brad Frost’s Atomic Design methodology, that’s by design. Atomic Design champions design elements built from a common set of lesser design elements. In Atomic Design, UI “atoms” assemble “molecules” which assemble “organisms” which assemble templates which assemble pages.
But there’s a common misunderstanding about Atomic Design which Connolly in turn suggests is a limitation:
Atomic Design will tell you to
take some of your basic elements (label, input, button),
stick them together, and call it a molecule. Then you
can reuse that molecule again and again. Further, you
can stick some molecules together to form a reusable
The problem with every real-world example of a system
like this that I’ve encountered is that they remain
willfully unaware of the product being built.
Atomic Design does indeed promote reuse, assembling larger parts from smaller ones. However, many mistake this philosophy for linear process, that somehow Atomic Design demands that all design must first start by building its smallest pieces (e.g. “start with buttons and labels”) before proceeding to page- and site-level design. It’s an approach that would indeed be blind to the end-result project, placing design tactics ahead of design strategy. But that’s exactly opposite to how Brad himself approaches projects.
It’s never a linear path from small to large; it’s a constant roundtrip between the two scales.
Right from the start, when Brad was first developing his tools and methodologies in our designs of TechCrunch and Entertainment Weekly, our process constantly zoomed back and forth between page level and atomic level. It’s never a linear path from small to large; it’s a constant roundtrip between the two scales.
As Connolly writes, “Complex systems can be designed, but to do so you must first sketch the outline. Only then can you start filling in the detail.”
Well said, and I totally agree. Indeed, our Atomic Design projects always begin with the big-picture questions. What are the business goals for the project? What are the user needs? What’s the brand promise? When we get to individual pages, it’s about the user mindset when they arrive, and the jobs the page has to do for both user and company.
From there, we do sketching of the whole page, identifying the broad design patterns that the page needs to do its job. We start to imagine the components necessary to bring those patterns to life.
Only then do we start to work at the atomic level, building out those component atoms and molecules to construct the pattern organisms, and ultimately the page itself. As more high-level pages and components are designed, we zoom back down to revisit the atoms and molecules, making adjustments to make them more flexible and support a wider range of organisms and pages. The atoms and molecules might compose the design, but it’s the high-level design that creates the order, the overall system.
In the end, a pattern library emerges. Here’s the important bit: the design system is implicit in the process that led to the library’s construction, and it’s implicit in the design’s use of components. For a small team on a contained project, that implicit knowledge may well be enough, commonly shared in the heads of the designers who built it.
But implicit knowledge won’t do when you’re working at scale across many projects and many teams. The design system has to be documented. That’s where all the other artifacts of a fully articulated design system come in: design principles, style guide, voice and tone, UX guidelines, code repository, and so on.
I agree very much with Connolly that those pieces are required for the “full-stack design system.” My only caveat is to add that an Atomic Design process can get you there, too.
Atomic Design surfaces all of those aspects during the course of the design process. Responsible designers document them.
Is your organization wrestling with inconsistent interfaces and duplicative design work? Big Medium helps big companies scale great design through design systems. Get in touch for a workshop, executive session, or design engagement.
At The New York Times, Penelope Green reports that sleep is big business—and the tech industry is rushing in to tweak our natural rhythms, with mixed results:
Mr. Mercier sent me his Dreem headset, a weighty crown
of rubber and wire that he warned would be a tad uncomfortable.
The finished product, about $400, he said, will be
much lighter and slimmer. But it wasn’t the heft of
the thing that had me pulling it off each night. It
skeeved me out that it was reading — and interfering
with — my brain waves, a process I would rather not
I was just as wary of the Re-Timer goggles, $299, which
make for a goofy/spooky selfie in a darkened room.
My eye sockets glowed a deep fluorescent green, and
terrified the cat.
The science and research confirm that there’s an epidemic of sleeplessness, which is costly in both health and productivity. Are tech gadgets the answer when tech gadgets are likely a big part of the problem? Our screens keep us awake; always-on information demands contribute to anxiety and stress; and social FOMO is constant.
As technologists, we often suggest that more technology is the solution to technology’s problems. In the case of sleep, perhaps a little less technology is what’s needed. Green quotes “sleep ambassador” Nancy Rothstein:
and your Apple Watch are not going to do it for you.
We’ve lost the simplicity of sleep. All this writing,
all these websites, all this stuff. I’m thinking, Just
sleep. I want to say: ‘Shh. Make it dark, quiet and
cool. Take a bath.’”
“Annotations Editor launched in 2008, before the world
went mobile,” writes YouTube product manager Muli Salem
in a blog post.
“With 60 percent of YouTube’s watchtime
now on mobile, why go through the work of creating
annotations that won’t even reach the majority of your
If it doesn’t work on mobile, it doesn’t work, period.
Self-driving tractors are becoming more common. A John
Deere spokesperson told me the company currently has
about 200,000 self-driving tractors on farms around
the world, from the US to Germany. And they’re just
one example of a major investment that the agriculture
sector is making in artificial intelligence and the
Internet of Things.
According to John Deere, between 60 and 70 percent of the crop acreage in North America today is farmed using GPS-driven tractors. (Source)
Farmers have been inhabiting the future for a long time—self-driving tractors have been on the go for 15 years. Industrial farms are big business; they feature wide-open spaces; and they operate on private property. All make of this makes farms ideal test beds for tech that includes autonomous vehicles, drones, artificial intelligence, and smart objects.
Liz Stinson, in Wired, previews Lightform, a “projection-mapping” device that can read a room and project images (or interfaces) onto any surface, no matter how irregular. In a nutshell, it’s augmented/mixed reality projected directly onto the environment:
Lightformâs technology sets the stage for more complex
and immersive forms of interaction. The company aims
to develop high-resolution augmented reality projections
that track objects and respond to human input in real
time. Its ultimate goal: Make projected light so functional
and ubiquitous that it replaces screens as we know
them in daily life life. âReally what weâre doing is
bringing computing out into the real world where we
live,â Sodhi says.
What I like about emerging technologies like this one is that the tech comes to you. Your surroundings simply become digital; no need to strap on a headset or peer through a screen.
Virtual, augmented and mixed reality products like
HoloLens and Daydream are often seen as being in the
vanguard of this evolution, but the level of immersion
required by these experiences is a somewhat misleading
guide to the future.
The larger concept at play here is the notion that
digital capabilities â through projection, augmentation
or other more subtle forms of ingress â will become
woven into the physical fabric of life. The dream of
ubiquitous computing will not come in boxes, but rather
will hover and shimmer in transient spaces around us.
“Woven into the physical fabric of life.” This is the exciting opportunity about the physical interface, whether embodied in IoT gadgets, projected UI, or augmented reality: it literally grafts onto the world around us, on our terms. It’s tech that promises to bend to our lives, rather than the reverse.
A notification is the product communicating with you
while you are not using it. It is a naturally interruptive
and invasive experience to various degrees. Because
of that it is a very consequential system, meaning
that every thing you send through it will have material
impact on the user’s experience with your product.
I especially liked his caution about being responsible with notifications that are solely intended to goose engagement:
These are essentially advertisements. For example, any digest email. One common property of a notification that has an explicit engagement goal is that they don’t need to be sent, meaning that the user doesn’t necessarily have any expectation that they will come. This is what makes them powerful and dangerous. Most people have experienced some abuse of this by some app who has wielded this for some sort of short term gain. “Happy Valentine’s day, we love you, come check out our app today!”
It’s difficult to summarize this broad and thoughtful overview of the UX and psychology of notifications—read the whole thing—but I’ll call out a few nuggets:
When the value of notifications are high enough, users will welcome incredibly high volume (e.g., text messages).
Offering user preferences for notifications is hard: “When you have to design the settings for these things it all get exposed to the user how hedgy these decisions often are. You either end up with a small set of extremely vague settings, or you end up with a overwhelming display of different toggles in an attempt to give the user some sense of control.”
Short-term engagement is misleading. More notifications always delivers more engagement, and so too many companies simplistically dial the notification machine way too high. It works until it doesn’t, users burn out.
Notifications for today’s popular voice interfaces don’t really exist; all interactions are initiated by the user. This is both an opportunity and an unsolved problem.
What will be the next large-scale creative trend after
selfies? The human desire to preserve themselves in
a moment is timeless, but surely the smartphone snap
is not the zenith of this desire for self-regard?
At Quora, Alan Kay himself rather awesomely answers the question, what made Xerox PARC special?. Among many other things, Kay invented the modern graphical user interface (GUI) during his years at PARC, which is the birthplace of technologies including the laser printer, ethernet, and object-oriented programming.
Kay answers the question with a list of the principles that animated PARC’s early years. Among them:
Visions not goals
Problem finding, not just problem solving
“It’s ‘baseball’ not ‘golf’ — batting .350 is very good in a high-aspiration, high-risk area. Not getting a hit is not failure but the overhead for getting hits.”
Researchers should design and build their own tools
In an era when we tediously debate “should designers learn to code,” that last bullet might seem extreme. Kay would say designers should not only learn to code, they should learn to build hardware, too:
The idea was
that if you are going to take on big important and
new problems then you just have to develop the chops
to pull off all needed tools, partly because of what
“new” really means, and partly because trying to do
workarounds of vendor stuff that is in the wrong paradigm
will kill the research thinking.
To pull in a well-known Kay quote, “the best way to imagine the future is to build it.”
Google announced that the search engine has begun giving special treatment to fact-checking websites in search results:
For the first time, when you conduct a search on Google
that returns an authoritative result containing fact
checks for one or more public claims, you will see
that information clearly on the search results page.
The snippet will display information on the claim,
who made the claim, and the fact check of that particular
So, for example, searching for “did millions of illegals vote” surfaces a fact-check article from politifact.com. The result for that article is captioned with a brief summary of the fact-check, finding the claim untrue that millions of non-citizens voted in the US presidential election:
At a minimum, this seems like it will be a useful step in flagging misinformation, or facts in dispute. The presence of one or more fact-check results in a search at least hints that there’s bad information or cynical propaganda afoot.
More broadly, this may prove to be a foundation for doing more to identify hostile information zones—toxic topics that poison our civic discourse and confuse search engines. How might the presence of these results be highlighted even more to caution the reader to be alert or skeptical when exploring this topic?
The success of this depends on Google identifying genuinely trustworthy sites to get this call-out treatment. How all of this works: behind the scenes, Google is extracting structured data inserted into the page (specifically, markup using the ClaimReview schema). Any website can insert that fact-check markup, but Google says it’s giving the new treatment only to sites “algorithmically determined to be an authoritative source.”
Algorithms can be fooled and gamed, of course, which is part of our fake-news mess in the first place. The promising step of calling out fact-check information would be seriously undermined if search results started including white-supremacist sites “fact checking” the equality of races, for example.
As I wrote in Systems Smart Enough To Know When They’re Not Smart Enough, our answer machines need to work harder at signaling when their answers may be compromised—by either widespread misinformation or even outright manipulation. As I argued there, this is a challenge of design and presentation as much as machine learning. Google’s new tweak is a small but useful first step in improving presentation.
Worth noting: this fact-check approach may help address controversies and misunderstandings. However, it does not do much for other hostile information zones—the awful results and “answers” that Google delivers if you ask it if women or Jews are evil, for example. That kind of hate is not about “disputed facts.” Our answer machines will have to find other ways to highlight the toxicity of those topics and the illegitimacy of their sources. In the meantime, this new change may at least help take down more conventional misinformation.
Thomas Beller writes for the New Yorker about Internet Noise, a clever project that loads random pages in your browser to garbage-up your search history for advertisers or other snoopers. It’s digital camouflage for the precise moment that we’re all getting that creepy feeling we’re being watched.
“We live in a moment when our government has too little transparency and our own private lives have too much,” Beller writes. “Internet Noise is a cleaning appliance—even though it achieves cleanliness by creating an obscuring veil, a kind of digital squid ink. Internet Noise is scrubbing your traces online, removing the evidence of your real self.”
(As a secondary bonus, the service is also a reminder of just how odd and wonderful the internet is. Beller describes watching Internet Noise take his browser on a hypnotic journey through pages about anti-social birders, videos of lonely book readings, images of obscure paintings, and the details of Florida’s water aquifers.)
Alas, Internet Noise isn’t likely to be effective camouflage; it’s more an art-project protest statement. Its creator Dan Schultz tells Beller that the ad-surveillance apparatus is already too sophisticated to fall for simple tricks:
“Advertisers will know it’s a robot,” [Schultz] said. “This is a noise generator. We are talking about signal processing. Humans signal-process every second of every day. When I hear a sound, my brain is processing that sound. Noise does not affect the signal. It is around the signal. We might be annoyed by noise, but even if there is static on the radio we can still pick up the melody. We just might miss some of the subtle nuances. Same thing goes for your fingerprint online. The algorithms are able to tell.”